Is PBDE toxic?
Is PBDE toxic?
The toxicity of PBDEs is not as well understood as that of PCBs. PBDEs are endocrine disruptors and neurotoxins. They are believed to cause liver tumors, neurodevelopmental and thyroid dysfunctions.
When was PBDE banned?
Experts expect the decline in PBDEs to mirror that of other persistent compounds, called PCBs, banned in 1978 – a rapid drop followed by a leveling-off period in which they persist in people at low levels.
What is PBDE chemical?
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) belong to a class of chemicals that are added to certain manufactured products in order to reduce the chances that the products will catch on fire. Some PBDEs can build up in certain fish and mammals when they eat contaminated food or water.
Is PBDE still used?
Flame retardant manufacturers in the U.S. voluntarily stopped producing the PentaBDE (used in furniture foam) and OctaBDE (used in electronic products) varieties of PBDEs in 2004 and have begun producing alternative flame retardants; however, DecaBDE continues to be produced and used in the U.S., primarily in …
Why is PBDE bad?
PBDEs are in blood, breastmilk, and umbilical cord blood. Children with higher prenatal exposure to PBDEs have been found in several studies to have lower IQ. Exposure has also been linked to hyperactivity, poor attention, and slower motor development. PBDEs affect thyroid hormone levels in laboratory animals.
What does PBDE do to humans?
Tetra-, Penta-, and Hexa-BDEs are the isomers most commonly found in humans. Based on studies on experimental animals, the toxicological endpoints of exposure to PBDEs are likely to be thyroid homeostasis disruption, neurodevelopmental deficits, reproductive changes, and even cancer.
Where is PBDE banned?
According to Environment California, since California’s ban of two types of PBDEs in 2003, several states have taken action against these chemicals, including Maine, Hawaii, Michigan, Washington, Oregon, Illinois, Maryland and New York. The European Union passed a ban in 2002.
Is decaBDE a PBDE?
Bis(pentabromophenyl) ether (decaBDE) is one member of the family of the polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE). It is used in in a broad range of plastic types and in textiles but uses in adhesives, sealants, coatings and inks are also reported.
Is PBDE a carcinogen?
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified PBDE as a Group 3 carcinogen (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) based on inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate or limited evidence in experimental animals.
What does PBDE mean?
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) belong to a class of chemicals that are added to certain manufactured products in order to reduce the chances that the products will catch on fire.
Is PBDE a Pfas?
Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in consumer products for their water repellent and flame retardant properties, respectively.
Are PBDEs banned in Canada?
PBDEs have been widely used since the 1970s; however, due to their persistence in the environment, the manufacturing of PBDEs has been banned and the import, use and sale of PBDEs found in commercial mixtures of greatest concern (penta- and octaBDE) have been restricted in Canada since 2008 and in the US since the end …
Which is the most common type of PBDE?
There are three types of commercial PBDE mixtures, including pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), octabromodiphenyl ether (octaBDE) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). DecaBDE is the most widely used PBDE globally (ATSDR 2015; EPA 2009).
How are PBDEs harmful to humans and the environment?
In recent years, PBDEs have generated international concern over their widespread distribution in the environment, their potential to bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife, and their suspected adverse human health effects. In the U.S., PBDE levels in people are generally 10–100 times higher than levels measured in people in Europe and Asia.
What kind of particles do PBDEs bind to?
Higher brominated congeners of PBDE tend to bind to sediment or soil particles more than lower brominated congeners ( ATSDR 2015). PBDEs do not dissolve easily in water and bind strongly to soil or sediment particles.
How many mg of PBDE congeners per day?
not present PBDE Congener Milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg/d 2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′,6,6′ decaBDE-209 con 7 x 10-3 octaBDE congener 3 x 10-3 pentaBDE congener 2 x 10-3 2,2’,4,4’ – tetrabromodiphenyl ether (te 1 x 10-4