How can you distinguish between diabetes and hypertensive retinopathy on Fundoscopy?

How can you distinguish between diabetes and hypertensive retinopathy on Fundoscopy?

Hypertensive retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy, while being similar in some features, show up differently on the retina. Hypertensive retinopathy has relatively few hemorrhages and a greater number of “cotton wool” spots than diabetic retinopathy, although there is little to differentiate the two for the patient.

How does hypertension affect diabetic retinopathy?

The possible mechanisms by which hypertension affects diabetic retinopathy are haemodynamic (impaired autoregulation and hyperperfusion) and secondly through VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), as it has been observed that hypertension independent of hyperglycaemia upregulates the VEGF expression in retinal …

Why is a fundus test done in hypertension?

In addition, hypertension may accelerate nonvascular eye disease, including age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. Fundoscopy should be part of the physical examination on every patient with newly diagnosed hypertension since the retina is the only part of the vasculature that can be visualized noninvasively.

Why is hypertension a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy?

Increased blood pressure has been hypothesised, through the effects of increased blood flow, to damage the retinal capillary endothelial cells in eyes of people with diabetes.

How long does hypertensive retinopathy last?

The retinal changes can be halted when hypertension is treated. However, arteriolar narrowing and AV changes persist. For untreated malignant hypertension, the mortality is high as 50% within 2 months of diagnosis and almost 90% by the end of 1 year.

What is a normal Fundoscopic exam?

Method Of Exam Inspect the vessels, noting obstruction, caliber and arterial/venous ratio. Note the presence of arterial/venous nicking and arterial light reflex. Check the background by inspecting for pigmentation, hemorrhages and hard or soft exudates. Next, try to identify the macula. Have the patient look at light.

What do you need to know about diabetic retinopathy?

occur at the earliest stage of the

  • Moderate NPDR. Blood vessels that nourish the retina may swell and become distorted as diabetic retinopathy progresses.
  • Severe NPDR.
  • What is diabetic retinopathy symptoms?

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that causes damage to the blood vessels in the retina. Symptoms include blurriness, floaters, and dark areas in vision.

    What is included in a diabetic eye exam?

    To diagnose diabetic eye disease effectively, eye care specialists recommend a comprehensive diabetic eye examination that includes the following procedures: Distance and near vision acuity tests. A dilated eye (or fundus) examination, which includes the use of an ophthalmoscope.

    How is a diabetic eye exam performed?

    How is a diabetic eye exam performed? A diabetic eye exam involves several diagnostic tests: a slit lamp, tonometry, pachymetry, and pupil dilation. All of these assessments are very simple and help us examine each component of the eye to identify any signs of cataracts, glaucoma, or diabetic retinopathy.