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What is abacavir hypersensitivity reactions?

What is abacavir hypersensitivity reactions?

Abacavir Hypersensitivity Reaction (HSR) • Abacavir is associated with a risk for hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) characterised by fever and/or rash with other symptoms indicating multiorgan involvement. • Symptoms usually appear within the first 6 weeks although the reaction may occur at any time during therapy.

What are symptoms of acute hypersensitivity reactions?

These reactions range from mild to life-threatening and are difficult to predict. Symptoms include flushing, nausea, difficulty breathing, back pain, hypotension and tachycardia. Hypersensitivity is commonly encountered owing to the increasing use of chemotherapy drugs in clinical practice.

What is the antigen recognized in abacavir hypersensitivity?

High sensitivity of human leukocyte antigen-b*5701 as a marker for immunologically confirmed abacavir hypersensitivity in white and black patients. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46:1111. Mallal S, Phillips E, Carosi G, et al. HLA-B*5701 screening for hypersensitivity to abacavir.

What causes abacavir hypersensitivity?

Abstract. A hypersensitivity reaction occurs in association with initiation of abacavir therapy as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in ∼3.7% of patients. The reaction is possibly the result of a combination of altered drug metabolism and immune dysfunction, which is poorly understood.

What are the side effects of abacavir?

The most common side effects of abacavir are hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction (see previous section), feeling sick, headache, being sick, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, tiredness, lack of energy, fever (high temperature).

What causes sudden skin hypersensitivity?

Causes of sensitive skin reactions include: Skin disorders or allergic skin reactions such as eczema, rosacea, or allergic contact dermatitis. Overly dry or injured skin that can no longer protect nerve endings, leading to skin reactions.

How long do hypersensitivity reactions last?

It can take anywhere from a few hours to 10 days. Typically, it takes from 12 hours to 3 days. Even with treatment, symptoms can last 2 to 4 weeks.

What is hlab5801?

Disease. HLA-B*5801 is involved in allopurinol sensitive drug induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Allopurinol is a frequent cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including drug-hypersensitivity syndrome, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN).

When should abacavir not be used?

Do not take this medication if you have had a previous allergic reaction to abacavir or any other medication containing abacavir. If your doctor tells you to stop taking abacavir because you had an allergic reaction, never take abacavir or a medication containing abacavir again.

Can a hypersensitivity to abacavir be fatal?

Abacavir is associated with a hypersensitivity reaction, a systemic illness that can be fatal if abacavir use is continued despite the reaction or if rechallenge occurs in someone who has already experienced the reaction.

Can a rash be caused by efavirenz or abacavir?

Although cutaneous involvement is a prominent part of nevirapine and efavirenz hypersensitivity, the rash caused by abacavir hypersensitivity may often be clinically unimpressive. Rash only occurs in 70% of cases [33]. Fever may often occur before the rash appears.

How many mg of Abacavir should I take?

Abacavir has an oral bioavailability of 83% and CNS area under the curve (AUC 0–6) to plasma AUC 0–6 ratios with a range of 27%–33% [ 4, 5 ]. The current recommended dose is 300 mg administered orally twice per day in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

How does abacavir work as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor?

Abacavir is a nucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Abacavir is a deoxy-guanosine base and is metabolized into carbovir triphosphate, the active intracellular agent. Abacavir has similar in vitro potency to other nucleoside analogues [ 2, 3 ].