Why Western Ghats have rich biodiversity?

Why Western Ghats have rich biodiversity?

The whole area of the Western Ghats region is rich with diverse flora. The forests of the Western Ghats which host the 325 globally threatened species of flora and fauna are non-equatorial tropical evergreen rainforests. The Shola forests, growing at higher elevations, are known for their highly floristic compositions.

What are the climatic characteristics of Western Ghats a hotspot of biodiversity?

The climate is humid and tropical in the lower reaches tempered by the proximity to the sea. Elevations of 1,500 m (4,921 ft) and above in the north and 2,000 m (6,562 ft) and above in the south have a more temperate climate. The average annual temperature is around 15 °C (59 °F).

What type of ecosystem is the Western Ghats?

The Western Ghats include a diversity of ecosystems ranging from tropical wet evergreen forests to montane grasslands containing numerous medicinal plants and important genetic resources such as the wild relatives of grains, fruit and spices.

In which states is Western Ghat is spread and known for its rich biodiversity?

The mountain range that runs along the west coast of peninsular India from Tamil Nadu through Kerala, Karnataka and Goa to Maharashtra is known as the Western Ghats and is well known for its majestic beauty. It is also among the top eight biodiversity hotspots in the world.

What are the advantages of Western Ghats?

The Western Ghats perform important hydrological and watershed functions. Approximately 245 million people live in the peninsular Indian states that receive most of their water supply from rivers originating in the Western Ghats. Thus, the soil and water of this region sustain the livelihoods of millions of people.

What are the passes in Western Ghats?

Palakkad Gap
Kasara ghatNaneghatTamhini Ghat
Western Ghats/Passes
Thal Ghat, Bhor Ghat and Pal ghat are the three most important passes linking the rest of India with the western coastal area (sandwiched between Western ghats and the Arabian sea) (Palakkad). These three passes have been used since ancient times for navigation and transportation.

What is the Speciality of Western Ghats?

The Western Ghats are one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots with over 5,000 flowering plants, 139 mammals, 508 birds and 179 amphibian species. At least 325 globally threatened species occur here. The range covers 60,000km2 and forms the catchment area for a complex of river systems that drain almost 40% of India.

Which is the largest pass in the Western Ghat?

Palghat Gap, major break in the Western Ghats mountain range, in southwestern India. Located between the Nilgiri Hills to the north and the Anaimalai Hills to the south, it is about 20 miles (32 km) wide and straddles the Kerala–Tamil Nadu border, serving as a major communication route between those two states.

How many species are found in the Western Ghats?

Though covering an area of 180,000km 2, or just under 6 per cent of the land area of India, the Western Ghats contain more than 30 per cent of all plant, fish, herpeto-fauna, bird, and mammal species found in India. Many species are endemic, such as the Nilgiri tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius) and the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus).

Why is biodiversity of Western Ghats under serious threat?

There are many crucial important ecosystems are occurred in Western ghats. This ecosystem is providing a number of threatened habitats, such as unique seasonally blooming mass-flowering of herbs on meadows and plateaus, Shola forest, mangrove forest, Myristica swamps, freshwater stream and rivers.

How tall are the hills of the Western Ghats?

Biogeographically, the hill chain of the Western Ghats constitutes the Malabar province of the Oriental realm running parallel to the west coast of India. Rising up from a relatively narrow strip of coast at its western borders, the hills reach up to a height of 2,695 m before they merge to the east with Deccan plateau at an altitude of 500-600 m.

How big is the ESA in Western Ghats?

On October 3, 2019, the Union environment ministry had proposed a draft of the ESA in the Western Ghats — 56,825 square kilometers (sqkm) spanning six states and covering 37% of the Western Ghats — of which 17,340 sqkm (2,133 villages) were in Maharashtra. So far, the state forest department has excluded 358 of the 2,133 villages from the ESA.