What is cytoplasmic genetic male sterility in plants?

What is cytoplasmic genetic male sterility in plants?

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a condition under which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen, is widespread among higher plants. CMS systems represent a valuable tool in the production of hybrid seed in self-pollinating crop species, including maize, rice, cotton, and a number of vegetable crops.

What is genetic male sterility?

Genic male sterility (GMS) has emerged as an ideal tool to accelerate hybrid breeding. Male sterility is generally characterized by the impairment of the male reproductive development as a result of underlying genetic causes and leads to the malformation of male gametes and/or pollen.

What is cytoplasmic male sterility is used in plant breeding?

Cytoplasmic male sterility is used in agriculture to facilitate the production of hybrid seed. Hybrid seed is produced from a cross between two genetically different lines; such seeds usually result in larger, more vigorous plants.

What are the genes for cytoplasmic male sterility in plants located?

Cytoplasmic male sterility (.i.e., dominance of female cytoplasmic genes over male) is due to plasmogenes located in mitochondrial DNA (mcDNA).

What is male sterility and its types?

Male Sterility  Male sterility is characterized by nonfunctional pollen grains, while female gametes function normally.  Inability to produce or to release viable or functional pollen as a result of failure of formation or development of functional stamens, microspores or gametes.  Main reason is mutation.

What causes cytoplasmic male sterility in plants?

Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes.

What is the process of male sterility?

Male sterility in plants implies an inability to produce or to release functional pollen, and is the result of failure of formation or development of functional stamens, microspores or gametes.

What is meant by cytoplasmic inheritance?

Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus. It is found in most eukaryotes and is commonly known to occur in cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts or from cellular parasites like viruses or bacteria.

How are genotypes expressed?

The genotype is expressed when the information encoded in the genes’ DNA is used to make protein and RNA molecules. The expression of the genotype contributes to the individual’s observable traits, called the phenotype.

What are different types of male sterility?

2. Types of Male Sterility:

  • Genetic Male Sterility (GMS): The pollen sterility which is caused by nuclear genes is termed as genie or genetic male sterility.
  • Cytoplasmic Male Sterility:
  • Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility (CGMS):

What are the types of sterility?

Sterility can be divided into three subtypes natural, clinical, and hardship.

Can a cytoplasmic male sterility be used for seed production?

Cytoplasmic male sterility cannot be utilized for hybrid seed production without the use of restorer line, because F 1 seeds produce only male sterile F 1 plants. The restorer line only can provide fertility in F 1 hybrids.

Are there different types of male sterility in plants?

There are three basic types of male sterility, viz.: (3) Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility. There are two other types, viz., chemical induced male sterility, and transgenic male sterility. Almost all crop plants possess male sterility if investigated property.

How are nuclear and cytoplasmic genes related to sterility?

The sterility is manifested by the influence of both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes. There are commonly two types of cytoplasms, N (normal) and S (sterile). There are also restorers of fertility (Rf) genes, which are distinct from genetic male sterility genes.

How is the male sterile line maintained in cytoplasmic?

In cytoplasmic–genetic male sterility restoration of fertility is done using restorer lines carrying nuclear genes. The male-sterile line is maintained by crossing with a maintainer line carrying the same nuclear genome but with normal fertile cytoplasm.